Although it is suggested that urbanization decreases biodiversity and increases the number of invasive species colonizing and establishing the area, several studies have shown that increasing the amount of green space mitigates these effects (Melles et al. 2003; Matteson et al. 2008). One way to accomplish this increase in urban habitat is by installing green roofs on buildings. Green roofs benefit the surrounding flora and fauna by serving as a unique habitat (Oberndorfer et al. 2007). Native birds and invertebrates use green roofs as habitats (Baumann 2006; Kadas 2006). Plant species, such as the native yellow wood sorrel (Oxalis stricta) also use green roofs as habitats (Butcher et al. 2012). However, little is known about the genetic diversity of species in urban environments. Of the few studies that have been conducted on urban species, only animals have been examined (Munshi-South and Kharchenko 2010). Furthermore, the genetic diversity has not yet been examined on any green roof species.
Figure 1-PCR product visualized on a 1% agarose gel from microsatellite markers Oxa22, Oxa46, Oxa62, and Oxa84. PCR was performed using 5ng of DNA for all samples.
Figure 2-PCR product visualized using a 4% agarose gel from microsatellite markers Oxa22, Oxa46, Oxa62, and Oxa84. Only samples showing amplification were loaded on this gel.
Figure 3-PCR product visualized on a 1% agarose gel from microsatellite marker Oxa62 fluorescently labeled with FAM. PCR was performed using 1ng of DNA for all samples.
Figure 4-Allele sizes for each of the eight samples.
It is suggested that urbanization decreases biodiversity and increases the number of invasive species colonizing and establishing the area. However, several studies have shown that increasing the amount of green space, such as the installation of green roofs on buildings, can mitigate these effects. Plant species, such as the native yellow wood sorrel (Oxalis stricta), colonize and use green roofs as habitats; however, no studies have been conducted on the genetic diversity of this species. Therefore, my long-term research goal is to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of O. stricta on green roofs in the five boroughs of New York City. In order to accomplish this goal, I needed to first identify microsatellite primer pairs that would successfully amplify regions of microsatellite DNA in plants of the Oxalis genus. In this study, I used four microsatellite primer pairs originally created for Oxalis alpina for use on eight other Oxalis cultivars of varying morphologies. Four microsatellite primer pairs were identified that successfully amplified regions of microsatellite DNA in Oxalis cultivars. Differentiation between individuals was accomplished using agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescently labeled primer pair that allowed me to determine each individual’s allele size at one locus. Three different alleles at one locus were found across the eight samples. Furthermore, seven of the samples were homozygous and one of the samples was heterozygous at this locus.
I would like to thank Kate Reid and Catharina Grubaugh for their patience and guidance throughout this project. I would also like to thank Dr. Sylvia Anderson for her help in collecting Oxalis cultivars from various florists and greenhouses as well as assistance with genotyping. Additionally, I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Jim Lewis, for his support and encouragement while taking this course and completing this research project. Finally, I would like to thank Dr. Berish Rubin for the support and knowledge provided throughout this course and research project.
|This document was last modified 05/05/2013.|
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